1642 204 10 367 kN 661kN 1. This intersection is the center point for the pilot hole. Shear force of steel and bolts. Note that the effective force at point A can now be written by combining Eq 11 and Eq 12 as: EQ 13 This is a much simpler equation to work with in a tubing forces model than Eq 11. The equation says that if two objects are very heavy then there is a strong force between them because of gravity. Where several holes are to be punched, the punch heights may be staggered to reduce the maximum force required. Area of hemisphere. 250 x 80 = 10 tons required. I also measured the slope 19feet. Yes, there are some holes in the secondary, but coach Ron Rivera's playcalling is causing havoc for opposing quarterbacks, who have been sacked 23 times in the past four games and an NFL-best 27. This type is mainly used in piercing of more number of holes on the component. Design specifications require that the displacement of D should not exceed 15 mm from the time the punch first touches the plastic sheet to the time it actually penetrates it. Plug gaging of holes by the GO-NOGO method By Van Keuren Introduction Introduction The American National Standards Institute defines a gage as "a device for determining whether or not one or more dimensions of a manufactured part are within specified limits. Mathew was able to figure out how to remove a stuck lug nut. The interpretation of this demonstration is potentially confusing when one considers that at the top of its arc, the water is accelerating downward because of the motion, but that the force of gravity is also downward. A punch separates a length of stock along a straight line. i cant answer it myself :( 1 following. Hold the drill steady and straight and do not countersink too deep. s is 80 & for soft material like copper, brass, alluminium is 6 0. Mixing room temperature= 85 degrees F. So what are the chances for space and time warps. The slug is essentially a mirror image of the hole with the same parts in reverse order. The red ball is initially orbiting in a circle of radius r with velocity v. which the force acts. The length of deviation section could be calculated with the following formula: – length of deviation section,. Many other factors need to be considered, such as range, rate of fire, fire control, and accuracy. Select a shape below to calculate the punch tonnage required. The Force RMS tab provides the tools needed to determine the RMS Force of a motion profile. I need to do both ends separately, not all the way through. The force exerted from a single acting pneumatic cylinder with 1 bar (10 5 N/m 2), full bore diameter of 100 mm (0. upper shoe) and die holder (a. The season began with eight new coaches -- we're looking at rookie head coaches and veteran coaches with new teams. Punch Tonnage Calculator. These equations assume that the shaft is treated as a cylinder with a uniform external pressure, and the hub is treated as a hollow cylinder with uniform internal pressure. For instance in kicking through our plaster wall during demolition before remodeling, I would punch my foot through and it would leave a hole that was 110% of the boot area on the way in and about 3 boot areas on the way out. This force turns out to be much more convenient to work wi th for several reas ons. The fracture paths (B) will meet evenly. Using the optimal drill bit is imperative in producing a functional and strong final tapped hole. 5 Diameter of punch, 10. 9 inches mercury, air velocity can be read directly from the Air Velocity Flow Charts. 5 inches in diameter can be punched. Select a shape below to calculate the punch tonnage required. 0 liter of water. For round holes in steel this is Diameter * PI * 30. (For a black hole of a mass equal to the mass of the Sun, the entire process would take about 10**66 years, or 1 with 66 zeros after it. so all you need to calculate is the average speed and the net applied force. hp required does not calculate turning hp from thrust force hp required only the combined hp required. (Last Updated On: December 20, 2017) Problem Statement: ME Board April 1996. diameter hole centered on the screw hole. a) When adjacent or parallel to a water pipeline, design the force main in accordance with the requirements of the sewer pipelines, see Part Three, Section 3 (Pipeline Crossings and Clearances). With the advances in technology, sheet metal cutting has turned to computers for precise cutting. They are of the same radius but planet A is more massive than. Strength of Materials 4th Edition by Pytel and Singer Problem 115 page 16. It is found that all these parameters affect the spring-back and the bending forces, but not in the same way. Now, you might not see quite this much of an increase in your own application. Flour temperature= 82 degrees F. Time to Empty or Drain a Tank, Pond, Reservoir Containing Water or other Liquid. My professor gave the answer in class but I can't seem to get my answers to match. In a black hole, gravity is a very strong contender. 2 kN If the dies were beveled, the force would be much lower and would approach zero using very sharp bevel. It is, however, a multiple step operation (shown below), and best product quality results can be obtained by optimizing the punch-to-die clearance. However, as the part material increases in hardness to accommodate longer or more demanding runs, greater force is placed on the punch and the die button, resulting in sudden shock, excessive wear, high compressive loading,. This force can range from nearly zero to as much as 25% of the force required to perforate the initial hole. In the United States, single hole punches are often used to punch holes through playing cards, marking them as "used" or "canceled". 2 days ago · I can see some armies folding to a fast force that won’t leave you alone. Stamping Design Guidelines Jonathan Zhang 2 Stamping Design Guideline Stamping includes a variety of sheet-metal forming manufacturing processes using a machine press or stamping press, the processes including punching, blanking, embossing, bending, forming, drawing, flanging, and coining. A hole punch has a diameter of 8mm and presses onto 10 sheets of paper with force of 6. I’m try to divide a number in a cell then round down, the number is odd (points need to pull for each 9 hole. \) The forces acting on the section of the chain are the distributed force of. Required Tonnage for Punching Mild Steel with Tensile Strength of 50,000 PSI How to Calculate Required Tonnage for Punching Mild Steel with Tensile Strength of 65,000 PSI How to Calculate the Diagonal Dimension of a Punch. Back on our May 2nd episode, we talked about the brain. Physics - Mechanics: Stress and Strain (12 of 16) Ex. Example: to punch a 1/2" hole through 1/4" thick mild steel. Start of punch penetration and fracture (A) with a relatively large punch to die clearance. Gas Springs are typically used for assisting in lifting a lid as well as holding it open, similar to how a hatchback on a car operates. 8 mm hole diameter, 25. asked by Chase on November 9, 2012; ALGEBRA 1 HELP. This is one of the reasons why physicists flinch so much during unrealistic action movies (that, and loud noises make us skittish). When an object is stationary all the forces acting on it are. This is also why reamers are typically used to finish a precision holes as they make a round hole. A fire helicopter carries a 620-kg bucket at the end of a cable 20. General Formula for Press Tonnage Required Determine the approximate press tonnage needed to stamp a part based on linear inches of cut. Calculate Torque, Thrust, and Machining Power for KSEM, SE Drill, Drill Fix, HTS and HTS-C Applications. Common Drilling Formulas RPM RPM = vc x 12 3. What force is required to punch a 20mm diameter hole through a 10mm thick plate. b) the blanking force required if the steel has a shear strength = 325 MPa and the tensile strength is 450 MPa Solution: (a) Since a = 0. Strong Nuclear Force. Stiffness coefficient of the components is derived for both cases. I believe that I could run through the wall, but I don't think you could apply enough force to get someone else through it. The circumference of the hole is simply pi*d and the thickness is given. 6 Load in newtons (or pounds-force) required to shear each specimen, and the average value, and 10. 625 inch thick plate?. Stripping force varies based on part material type and thickness as well as punch-to-matrix clearance. lower shoe). Guns are essentially minor blunt force trauma masquerading as a piercing, closer to a hole punch than anything else. 3 Shear resistance of pre-loaded bolts carrying a tension force According to Clause 3. Given a series that is known to converge but for which an exact answer is not known, how does one find a good approximation to the true value?. 14 x D 12 or SFM = 0. 1 in) for sufficient force. Punching is a cutting process in which material is removed from a piece of sheet metal by applying a great enough shearing force. How Do You Calculate Press Fit Forces? The forces associated with a press, or interference, fit are determined using equations and pre-established values. The size of that force is considered to be 5 to 10 times the free bending force. friction and the force needed to accelerate the load. I want to drill a 5/16" hole exactly in the center of each end, 2" min depth. It is always worth putting in significant effort at the start of the program to build one team who trust each other and want to work together to get the job done. Prepare Your Kitten’s Bottle Properly. A wedge is shaped like two inclined planes placed back to back. The bearing method assumes that the bolt contacts the side of a hole and there is a compressive force between the bolt and the side of the hole. how much force is required to punch a hole 1cm in diameter in a steel sheet 5mm thick ? using the above equation: Failure force = 2. 5M award from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to support operation of the Dark Energy… Image. A hole Is punched at A in a plastic sheet by applying a 600-N force P to end D of lever CD, which is rigidly attached to the solid cylindrical shaft BC. This force can range from nearly zero to as much as 25% of the force required to perforate the initial hole. For your convenience, we included a tool below to calculate a decimal value from the fraction of inches. [HINT: Be careful in decing what area to use. In order to do trigonometry calculations, you should have a calculator with buttons for tan, cos, and sin. lower shoe). Where several holes are to be punched, the punch heights may be staggered to reduce the maximum force required. In tension members, there may be bolt holes that reduce the size of the cross section. = Hole dia. Strength of Materials 4th Edition by Pytel and Singer Problem 115 page 16. The force (F) of attraction between two magnets is in-versely proportional the square of the distance between. Of course, the distance over which the object slows down is much smaller than the distance over which it sped up. This is the basic force of impact - how hard the weapon strikes the target. These are average values only. Using a lever means that less force is needed to push down. What force is required to punch a 20-mm-diameter hole in a plate that is 25 mm thick? The shear strength of the plate is 350 MN/m 2. Stiffness coefficient of the components is derived for both cases. Determine the horizontal component of force required to hold the plate stationary. Durable metal construction; hole punches through 20 sheets. Learn how to do just about everything at eHow. An approximate answer could be derived by comparing the energy of a bullet that may well pass through the body and the size of the hole it would make with the probable size of the hole a fist would make. A rivet set is a small bar of steel with a hole in one end to receive the end of the rivet and a cuplike depression used in forming the head of the rivet as it is hammered down. The minimum punching force is required for blanking. Physics - Mechanics: Stress and Strain (12 of 16) Ex. Formulae in practice, Borehole planning and Toolface calculation. Select Material Type. Req’d rebar. The length of deviation section could be calculated with the following formula: – length of deviation section,. InterNACHI is the world's leading association for home inspectors. Formulae in practice, Borehole planning and Toolface calculation. How to Obtain Tonnage Required for Punching Shaped Holes. These are average values only. Determine whether punching shear reinforcement is required, i. The principal components are the punch and die, which perform the cutting operation. Practice 3 Sat 14:00 – 15:00. 625 rather than 5/8. It encounters a force of 20 N for 0. used for force calculation. 5 mm thick metal strip, if the ultimate shear stress of the material is 450 N/mm2. Multiple hole punching of any shape over a length of up to 16 ft; Modularized into 24" sections; Total punching force of 50 tons. The basic design equation for shear says that the reduced nominal shear capacity must be greater than the factored shear force. 3) whereWis work,Fis the magnitude of the force on the system,dis the magnitude of the displacement of the system, andθis the angle between the force vectorFand the displacement vectord. The idea that we can achieve whatever we want through force of will is a modern mainstay. Cutting force 2. 65 ft/sec (0. As the sheet metal is bent, the force needed will change. Calculating Punching Force. For full details on the Air Force's Captain compensation and retirement plan, visit the 2019 Air Force Captain Pay Chart. Area of invert fillet 14. Punching is a cutting process in which material is removed from a piece of sheet metal by applying a great enough shearing force. When you measure the weight of a person, you are measuring the force of gravity pulling on him. For non-round slots, the minimum wall thickness should be 2 times thickness for short slots < 10 thicknesses long; and 4 times thickness for long slots > 10 thicknesses long. Surface tension is a property that allows the surface of a liquid to behave somewhat as a trampoline does. 5M award from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to support operation of the Dark Energy… Image. 5 Diameter of punch, 10. The city will pay whoever gets the job between $125,820 and $207,604 a year. An approximate answer could be derived by comparing the energy of a bullet that may well pass through the body and the size of the hole it would make with the probable size of the hole a fist would make. Fluids can flow steadily, or be turbulent. - Use the Press Stroke calculator to determine the theoretical strokes per minute when using any of the Conway Press C-Series hydraulic presses. The federal government spends between $40 billion. Quick links take you to products needed to complete your build. This could be a single stage operation where every. The minimum punching force is required for blanking. 625 inch thick plate?. Introduction Water (or other liquid) draining out of a tank, reservoir, or pond is a common situation. After one second, you're falling 9. In this section, you will find the drilling formulas and definitions needed for your drilling operations, such as cutting speed, feed per revolution, and specific cutting force. however recommends that due to the empirical nature of its formula, punching shear check should be performed independently for moments about each of the principal axis 1. 801-214-7346 Machines With The Highest. 5 to 20% of the punch force but 5 to 10 percent is good for most of the applications. Forces are easy to understand as pushes and pulls. Place the sheet metal on the bush so the spigot protrudes through the hole. The amount of force needed to open the door (assuming we are opening the door AGAINST the high pressure side) will be about half this force or 2. This equation is used to calculate how the earth moves around the sun and how the moon moves around the earth. What force is required to punch a 20mm diameter hole in a plate that is 25mm thick? The shear strength of the plate is 350MPa. The number of wedges () can be found by the following formula. 2 answers 2. Physics - Mechanics: Stress and Strain (12 of 16) Ex. The force can be calculated by using the following formula: where p is the momentum, t is the time, m is the mass and a is the acceleration. The eight have a combined record of. ) Source(s): I remember this topic when i'm in 3rd year college in subject strenght of material from simple stress. Mathew was able to figure out how to remove a stuck lug nut. You can punch multiple sheets at a time and the holes punch the same location consistently. All you need is a pair of heavy duty gauntlets to add some weight and focus all the force to a narrow point. A wedge is shaped like two inclined planes placed back to back. A force is the amount one object tries to push or pull another object. Stroke speed can be calculated using the following formula:. 1 Table 1 is based on a round-robin test conducted in. Fluid dynamics and Bernoulli's equation. 3 Fundamentals of Press Operation The force by which press ram is able to exert safely is called tonnage of the press. Mixing room temperature= 85 degrees F. 8 m/s 2 Gravity accelerates you at 9. If the shaft is provided with one or more necked-down parts, enter their parameters in the table acc. CE 405: Design of Steel Structures – Prof. Scandal could do a lot with a sizable first half lead; the larger the D. Punching is a cutting process in which material is removed from a piece of sheet metal by applying a great enough shearing force. the denominator. Precision and Bias 6 11. passing through a small hole in a friction less, horizontal table. Contact Advantage Fabricated metals for custom metal components and metal fabricating services including stamping, roll forming, and other metal forming and welding services. ) You should be aware that, in rare cases, once this mathematical formula is applied to your credits in transfer, you may be short a few credits in overall requirements for graduation. In order to do trigonometry calculations, you should have a calculator with buttons for tan, cos, and sin. Place the pin through the ring into the hole at the center of the force table. The idea that we can achieve whatever we want through force of will is a modern mainstay. • The characteristics of the hole (or leak) that determine whether it will leak are the smallest diameter in the hole path, the path length of the hole through the part material, surface tension, and the surface finish of hole (leak). 10-kg hockey puck is at rest. : stainless steel), it’s convenient to use punches with special shape as shown in the below figure. 33; for edge bending, K bf = 0. larger than the bolt diameter. This is the spot where the center hole will go on the belt. Enter the mass of the object, final velocity, initial velocity, the time period for which the force is exerted in this online average force calculator and submit to know the force in Newtons. They can be purchased separately or in sets. Fs = cutting force. hp required does not calculate turning hp from thrust force hp required only the combined hp required. Punching shear is a phenomenon where a concentrated force on a slab causes a shear failure cone that "punches" through. The process of minimizing an impact force can be approached from the definition of the impulse of force:. Maximum interference is. Example: How many pounds of sandbags should be used to counter the reactive force generated by a 1. 6 million products to keep you up and running. 142 by the square of 30 by 30 to. In order to calculate the side force, Fs, necessary to disengage a ball plunger from the detent hole you need to know the end force of the ball, FE, the resultant force, FR and the countersink angle. 125 This information is valuable when determining which of the Conway Press C-Series hydraulic presses will best suit your needs. I have found the equation "V=1/3 pie r squared h" , but it dosn't work! The pile is 7 feet high, diameter is 50 feet, circumference is 185 feet. Calculator for Finding Forces in Compression Springs. Analysis of a world champion welterweight's punching force found it to be 10 times that of your average person's. Punching 8. 25 long Mating hole: 12L14 steel, 52RC. The bar's length would be labelled as L in the formula. Kinetic energy is measured in "foot pounds" (the energy needed to exert a one pound force for a distance of one foot). In this process, the sheet is held between a wipe die and clamp pad, while a punch presses against the edge of the sheet. For full details on the Air Force's Captain compensation and retirement plan, visit the 2019 Air Force Captain Pay Chart. Michael Fowler. Bending Force Requirement Punch Workpiece T Die W Force T = Sheet Thickness W = Width of Die Opening L = Total length of bend (into the page) UTS = Ultimate Tensile Strength of material () 2 UTS W LT F= Note: the notation used in the text (L, W) differs from that used in the previous development (b, L). They needed just five plays to punch it into the end zone, despite a holding penalty setting them back. Scandal’s power throwers will force Brute Squad to respect their deep game, leaving them the option to work the disc with well-timed unders. The thrust force is required to push the pipeline into the borehole and was investigated by means of Finite element calculations using the ABAQUS software package. &(Courtesy)of)Feintool. A circular hole of 150 mm diameter is to be punch out of a 2 mm thick plate. 10^-4 m² so load on punch ≥ 24. Holes need to be punched in sheets, pipes of a wide variety of materials for assembly purpose. Here follows a short example of how to work out the shear force of a piece of steel. 1) Locate the force main as if it is a water pipeline, see requirements under Part One (Water), with the following exceptions. 10 hours ago · It's not easy being a head coach in the NFL. You can rent a gas-powered, walk-behind lawn aerator for about $70 per day. We used this type of clearance (6% total) for round perforating punches to get away from a larger burr and from having to use a shaving die. 7 Shear strength in megapascals (or pounds-force per square inch) for each specimen, the average value, and the standard deviation. 1 Equation 7 D. Example: 0. Force measured in newtons, times distance measured in meters, gives the metric unit of work or energy, and it is called the joule. Smith & Associates Effects of Increasing Punch to Die Clearance on Cut Edge Condition Within reasonable limits, increasing the amount of clearance between the punch and die will decrease the required cutting force. Select the appropriate hole size from the table below for the bush size required. Amir Abdullah finished it with a 17-yard catch in which nobody was within 10 yards of him. In the second diagram the force is concentrated on a small area so the pressure is much higher. Start Your Free Trial Today. ks = shear strength (approx. (a) Schematic illustration of shearing with a punch and die, indicating some of the process variables. Find the largest force F that can be applied to the structure if the working shear stress for these pins is. Most three-hole punches adjust, so your papers fit correctly into the binder. The product of force and time is a quantity called impulse (measured in newton seconds). clamping force are shown in Figure 6. Whether it’s a knockout system that can be set-up without the weight of the tool for the easiest way to punch, or the 600 MCM Crimper that holds the connector for instant alignment and the fastest repetitive crimps, FORCE LOGIC™ always delivers the smartest way to work. When tested between two steel plates, however, the force required to separate them jumps up to 16 lb! That's a huge difference. If the taper is 1 in 10 and the material to be cut is 1mm thick, then the projected width of the blade would be 0. Thanks to all of you who support me on Patreon. On the go? Download our Bolt Load Calculator app instead. Calculate the force required. The main reason for aerating is to alleviate soil compaction. Clearance is determined by the type and thickness of the material being punched. 2 the pre-loading force Fp. Brute Force: Humans Can Sure Take a Punch. Flow Over a Dam Spillway Prepared by Redahegn Sileshi 3 5. The solution is found to be, 0 2 2 + y = EI P dx d y (3) LECTURE 26. 801-214-7346 Machines With The Highest. we knew that a more comprehensive formula is sometimes required to establish an accurate answer. This article will look at the basics of selecting die springs for punch tools using the following variables: Pressure required to perforate the material (shear off, punch hole). How to Obtain Tonnage Required for Punching Shaped Holes. The force can be calculated by using the following formula: where p is the momentum, t is the time, m is the mass and a is the acceleration. If is the pitch of the rivets and is the force on the rivets over a length of beam then proceeding as in the section on the variation of Shear Stress: (Compare with and let ) Note that for the flanges there are two rivets to a pitch length and they are usually staggered so as not to occur together in one cross section. It gives you a complete list of apps you have currently installed and it allows to remove any of them by clicking a button. Blanking and piercing are shearing processes in which a punch and die are used to modify webs. In this answer, I'm not really going to explain how to fit the formula; rather, I'm giving a process that will work for nearly any type of Calc II "application" problem. Can make the shear crack joint, balanced blanking force, good punching quality, long service life of the mold. ls = cutting length. Equation 6-12. Time to Empty or Drain a Tank, Pond, Reservoir Containing Water or other Liquid. It is commonly referred to as clearance per side, and is expressed as a percentage of stock thickness. Brace & Bit. In physics and engineering, mechanical advantage (MA) is the factor by which a machine multiplies the force put into it. In science fiction, space and time warps are a commonplace. In addition, with tight clearances the material has a higher tendency to grab the punch, thereby increasing the stripping force on the punch. To calculate the force to punch holes in metal you determine the cross section in shear and multiply it by the shear strength of the metal. The process is considered "deep" drawing when the depth of the drawn part exceeds its diameter. 60 What is the force required to punch a square hole, 100 mm on each side, in a 1-mm thick 5052-O aluminum sheet, by using flat dies? What would be your answer if beveled dies are used? The maximum punch force, F, is given by Eq. 5 inches in diameter can be punched. Brake Calculations There are many books on brake systems but if you need to find a formula for something in particular, you never can. To use the Concrete Volume Calculator, simply enter the width, length, and thickness of your pour, click on whether you are measuring the thickness in feet or inches, then click on the Calculate button. Therefore the size of a punched opening is determined by the punch. 62 and will depend on application. The eight have a combined record of. Solving for the period of a gravity hole from scratch required some hefty mathematics like Calculus. Due to the electromagnetic force however all of the protons in the nucleus are pushing each other apart trying to break free, the thing that holds them together is the Strong Nuclear force. Markings also available on individual punch and dies for Slug-Buster® and Standard Round Knockouts in conduit sizes. In a black hole, gravity is a very strong contender. Thus it is 1/9. Back on our May 2nd episode, we talked about the brain. Choose required ranks and required tasks. This can give you an idea of the force required to cut a wire or other material. 5 mm thick metal strip, if the ultimate shear stress of the material is 450 N/mm2. Fastened using the standard press-fitting for fastening a ferrous part to a ferrous, bronze, or copper part Assembly/disassembly are the same as the above. Conven+onally&sheared&surface&showing&the&dis+nctregions&of& deformaon&and&fracture&and&(boYom)&magniﬁed&view&of&the& sheared&edge. 8Ac where = gross cross-sectional area of concrete. Sheet metal can be cut in various ways, from hand tools called tin snips up to very large powered shears. One kilogram-force is equal to exactly 9. Force is a vector quantity as it has both magnitude and direction. Area of hemisphere. The ties are handy for securing small coils of electrical cable and rope. The slug is essentially a mirror image of the hole with the same parts in reverse order. How to Calculate Required Tonnage for Punching Mild Steel with Tensile Strength of 65,000 PSI How to Calculate the Diagonal Dimension of a Punch How to Calculate the Largest Square Size Allowed for a Punch Style. • Graph the experimental data (ln Q vs ln H e) and fit a linear equation ( y = mx + b ). Analysis of a world champion welterweight's punching force found it to be 10 times that of your average person's. Fitting which requires large force for assembly/disassembly （ However, only light press-fitting force is required for press-fitting when both parts are non-ferrous parts. 098” #40 hole. Contractors often receive calls to fix holes punched in sheetrock, or drywall. Additional force results in acceleration of a mass or a change in momentum. This is one of the reasons why physicists flinch so much during unrealistic action movies (that, and loud noises make us skittish). Punching shear is a phenomenon where a concentrated force on a slab causes a shear failure cone that "punches" through. Punch the hole diameter into the sheet material. Consider a body which can be rotated. When the drilling thrust exceeds the material bond strength, damages can be caused around the hole. I need to do both ends separately, not all the way through. 625 rather than 5/8. This equation is used to calculate how the earth moves around the sun and how the moon moves around the earth. Fastened using the standard press-fitting for fastening a ferrous part to a ferrous, bronze, or copper part Assembly/disassembly are the same as the above. In punch and die operations, the size of the die opening is a major factor in the force necessary to perform the bending. For many years, 5% per side die clearance was used. SHANGHAI (AP) — Given another shot at winning the HSBC Champions, Rory McIlroy delivered his best of the day. Therefore, to ensure complete safety, the bolts are also checked for bearing failure at the ultimate load. This is common for drilling with a standard drill bit, and is more pronounced the harder you force the drill bit. Calculations • Calculate the total energy head He. The edges of the die should remain clean and undamaged. A circular hole of 150 mm diameter is to be punch out of a 2 mm thick plate. The Washington Nationals are World Series champions for the 2019 season, and the Padres should be busy taking notes.